Compelling Development for Composite Dental Restorations in the Future
The difficult oral environment continues to be the major challenge for dental materials despite the stability and hardness of dental resin composites. Dental restoration materials are susceptible to a variety of stresses that are produced during mastication activities. These strains have an effect on dental restoration materials either directly or indirectly, triggering reactions that eventually lead to failure or jeopardise the materials' long-term stability. Though tooth decay and early restorative replacement remain clinical issues brought on by eating and brushing teeth, resin composites have recently made enormous strides. The greater failure rate of restorative composites that are aesthetically attractive is a significant issue. This is brought on by a number of things, including as the forces produced when chewing, fracturing over time, polymerization shrinkage, loss of retention, recurrent caries under restorations, etc. Polymerization shrinkage is the main reason for marginal leakage and post-operative sensitivity in composite restorations. Due to the inherent shortcomings of dental composites brought on by polymerization shrinkage, restoratives are still needed. Human teeth undergo a combination of tensile and shear pressures during the many oral functions, including eating, swallowing, and other related acts. Due to these stress conditions, the phenomenon of fracture initiation starts and expands over time, potentially leading to catastrophic failure of tooth restorative composites. The materials used for indirect repairs should be strong enough to withstand the fracture loads acting on the tooth structure when cracks propagate quickly. Dimethacrylate dental restorations have the disadvantage of fracturing more quickly than other materials, which leads to clinical failure and the problem of microchipping in the occlusal contact area. Dental materials with a suitable fracture toughness could be developed by optimising the chemical compositions of the restorative materials. One of the frequently recommended approaches for achieving increased fracture toughness is the incorporation of fillers into the matrix, which slows the rate of crack propagation in composites and contributes to additional toughening mechanisms, such as crack deflection, the crack pinning effect, and good adhesion bonding between filler and matrix material. In the complicated oral environment, dental restorations. Dental restorative materials are clinically subjected to the complex human masticatory process, which entails cyclic mastication loading at varying temperatures. A dental restorative material employed in the stress-bearing region must withstand the strong masticatory pressures in order to offset the stress concentration impact on the tooth-restoration interface. Dental materials should have storage moduli that are as close to the sort of dental tissue they were designed to replace as is practical. Conversely, glass temperature is thought of as a fingerprint for polymer-based composites since it signals sudden changes in the mechanical characteristics of materials as well as the start of once the dental restorations have absorbed enough heat energy, thermal degradation will occur. The glass temperature value of restorative material for dental applications should be higher than the highest temperature that exists during oral activities in order to retain the physical and mechanical properties of materials. Numerous studies have also been done on the wear resistance of dental materials and tooth enamel under various dynamic loading situations, special formulations, and working mediums including dry, artificial saliva, citric acid medium, etc. The abrasion phenomenon caused by mastication and brushing has remained despite the more significant development of composites made of resin in latest days.